กระดานข่าววัดดอน
   
0023 : จากคุณ พระอาจารย์   [58.8.53.107]   08 Dec 2009 - 15:04   [1004 คำตอบ]

เนื้อหาที่ต้องรู้ก่อนสอบ ม4


หลักประชาธิปไตยทั่วไปในพระพุทธศาสนา

พระพุทธศาสนาเป็นศาสนาประชาธิปไตยมาตั้งแต่เริ่มแรก ก่อนที่พระพุทธเจ้าจะทรงมอบให้พระสงฆ์เป็นใหญ่ในกิจการทั้งปวงเสียอีกลักษณะที่เป็นประชาธิปไตยในพระพุทธศาสนามีตัวอย่างดังต่อไปนี้

1. พระพุทธศาสนามีพระธรรมวินัยเป็นธรรมนูญหรือกฎหมายสูงสุด พระธรรม คือ คำสอนที่พระพุทธเจ้าทรงแสดง พระวินัยคือ คำสั่งอันเป็นข้อปฏิบัติที่พระพุทธเจ้าทรงบัญญัติขึ้นเมื่อรวมกัน เรียกว่า พระธรรมวินัย ซึ่งมีความสำคัญขนาดที่พระพุทธเจ้าทรงมอบให้เป็นพระศาสดาแทนพระองค์ ก่อนที่พระองค์จะปรินิพพานเพียงเล็กน้อย

2. มีการกำหนดลักษณะของศาสนาไว้เรียบร้อย ไม่ปล่อยให้เป็นไปตามยถากรรม ลักษณะของพระพุทธศาสนาคือสายกลาง ไม่ซ้ายสุด ไม่ขวาสุด ทางสายกลางนี้เป็นครรลอง อาจปฏิบัติค่อนข้างเคร่งครัดก็ได้ โดยใช้สิทธิในการแสวงหาอดิเรกลาภตามที่ทรงอนุญาตไว้ ในสมัยต่อมา เรียกแนวกลางๆ ของพระพุทธศาสนาว่า วิภัชชวาที คือศาสนาที่กล่าวจำแนกแจกแจง ตามความเป็นจริงบางอย่างกล่าวยืนยันโดยส่วนเดียวได้ บางอย่างกล่าวจำแนกแจกแจงเป็นกรณี ๆ ไป

3. พระพุทธศาสนา มีความเสมอภาคภายใต้พระธรรมวินัย บุคคลที่เป็นวรรณะกษัตริย์ พราหมณ์ แพศย์ ศูทรมาแต่เดิม รวมทั้งคนวรรณะต่ำกว่านั้น เช่นพวกจัณฑาล พวกปุกกุสะคนเก็บขยะ และพวกทาส เมื่อเข้ามาอุปสมบทในพระพุทธศาสนาอย่างถูกต้องแล้ว มีความเท่าเทียมกัน คือปฏิบัติตามสิกขาบทเท่ากัน และเคารพกันตามลำดับอาวุโส คือผู้อุปสมบทภายหลังเคารพผู้อุปสมบทก่อน

4. พระภิกษุในพระพุทธศาสนา มีสิทธิ เสรีภาพภายใต้พระธรรมวินัย เช่นในฐานะภิกษุเจ้าถิ่น จะมีสิทธิได้รับของแจกก่อนภิกษุอาคันตุกะ ภิกษุที่จำพรรษาอยู่ด้วยกันมีสิทธิได้รับของแจกตามลำดับพรรษา มีสิทธิรับกฐิน และได้รับอานิสงส์กฐินในการแสวงหาจีวรตลอด 4 เดือนฤดูหนาวเท่าเทียมกัน นอกจากนั้นยังมีเสรีภาพที่จะเดินทางไปไหนมาไหนได้ จะอยู่จำพรรษาวัดใดก็ได้เลือกปฏิบัติกรรมฐานข้อใด ถือธุดงควัตรข้อใดก็ได้ทั้งสิ้นฃ

5. มีการแบ่งอำนาจ พระเถระผู้ใหญ่ทำหน้าที่บริหารปกครองหมู่คณะ การบัญญัติพระวินัย พระพุทธเจ้าทรงบัญญัติเอง เช่นมีภิกษุผู้ทำผิดมาสอบสวนแล้วจึงทรงบัญญัติพระวินัย ส่วนการตัดสินคดีตามพระวินัยทรงบัญญัติแล้วเป็นหน้าที่ของพระวินัยธรรมซึ่งเท่ากับศาล


6. พระพุทธศาสนามีหลักเสียงข้างมาก คือ ใช้เสียงข้างมาก เป็นเกณฑ์ตัดสิน เรียกว่า วิธีเยภุยยสิกา การตัดสินโดยใช้เสียงข้างมาก ฝ่ายใดได้รับเสียงข้างมากสนับสนุน ฝ่ายนั้นเป็นฝ่ายชนะคดี


| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 |
651. Maxwell     [5.188.211.35]     25 Feb 2021 - 10:54

I'd like to send this to goodrx glipizide False Economy campaign manager Clifford Singer said the figures show that, along with other benefit cuts, the benefit change is "driving tenants and families who were just making ends meet into arrears".

652. Alyssa     [5.188.211.35]     25 Feb 2021 - 10:54

I went to glipizide metformin 1mg The index had hit a five-week trough earlier this week asinvestors bet the Fed would reassure markets that interest rateswould remain low for a long time even if it started scaling backstimulus this year.

653. Santos     [5.188.211.35]     25 Feb 2021 - 10:54

I'm doing a phd in chemistry depo-provera 150 mg uses Health officials in Iowa and Nebraska on Tuesday identified prepackaged salad mix as the source of a severe stomach bug that sickened hundreds of people in both states, but federal authorities said it's not clear whether cyclospora outbreaks elsewhere in the U.S. are also linked to that produce.

654. Gerry     [5.188.211.35]     25 Feb 2021 - 10:54

Recorded Delivery rabeprazole pbs online "At first, they were just looking just for a way to promote both Bubba Watson (a professional golfer) and Oakley," he said. "They thought of things like releasing animals on the golf course, but eventually they came to us about the hover golf cart."

655. Armand     [5.188.211.35]     25 Feb 2021 - 11:00

Pleased to meet you diclofenac ratiopharm 75 mg dosierung But Russia, a key ally of Assad, is unhappy with the draft's references to possible punitive measures against Syria under Article 7 of the U.N. charter, which talks about U.N. authorization for sanctions and military force.

656. Salvador     [5.188.211.35]     25 Feb 2021 - 11:00

Do you know each other? ditropan xl cost What did the Angels ask for a guy with a .309 on-base percentage and a hefty new contract? Only top Cardinals pitching prospects Michael Wacha and Carlos Martinez, according to multiple reports. I hope St. Louis GM John Mozeliak hung up on the Angels representative on the other end of the phone line.

657. Gabriella     [5.188.211.35]     25 Feb 2021 - 11:00

Excellent work, Nice Design metoprolol succinate 25 mg in hindi "The seizure in question is just an example of a muchbroader reality," prosecutors said in one of the documents, inwhich they accuse IOR managers of "deliberately undervaluing andrefusing to comply with anti-money laundering requirements".

658. Irea     [5.188.211.35]     25 Feb 2021 - 11:00

I like it a lot clobetasol 0.05 cream price The argument ended when one of the debaters pulled out an air gun and shot the other in the head, local police said in a statement. The shooter then fled the scene but was later detained, police said. The other manโ€™s wound was not critical, but he was hospitalized, the statement said, without disclosing any names. Local media said the men were in their late 20s.

659. Bobbie     [5.188.211.35]     25 Feb 2021 - 11:00

Go travelling singulair 5mg prospect Kerry's announcement came after last-minute meetings with Palestinian officials at the end of a day in which he shuttled between the Jordanian capital and the West Bank. In Amman, Kerry said Israel and the Palestinians had agreed on a basis for returning to negotiations, five years after talks broke down.

660. Arianna     [5.188.211.35]     25 Feb 2021 - 11:06

Could I make an appointment to see ? tadalafil 6mg bluechew However, the start of oil production in 2011 in a jointpartnership between CNPC and the Niger state offered hope for animprovement in government finances. Production is running ataround 16,500 barrels per day, Zorome said.

661. Anton     [5.188.211.35]     25 Feb 2021 - 11:06

Could you give me some smaller notes? apa fungsi obat omeprazole 20 mg In Rabaa al-Adawia, at a press conference late on Saturday the Muslim Brotherhood called on the international community to condemn the bloodshed that had taken place and 'indict' Gen. Sisi for "war crimes".

662. Bernardo     [5.188.211.35]     25 Feb 2021 - 11:06

How much will it cost to send this letter to ? metoprolol er 25 mg price "After the verdict, an immature youngster with vague dreams of a 'better world' and few thoughts about his own obligations is facing further years in prison. But his military superiors failed at least as much as Bradley Manning."

663. Pedro     [5.188.211.35]     25 Feb 2021 - 11:06

Who would I report to? tamsulosin hydrochloride tablets 0.4mg in hindi Chevron owns a 40 percent stake in 13 onshore blocks withNigeria's state oil firm NNPC and also has deep offshore assets.Its 2012 net daily production in Nigeria averaged 238,000barrels of crude oil and 165 million cubic feet of natural gas.

664. Frances     [5.188.211.35]     25 Feb 2021 - 11:06

How much is a Second Class stamp? ezetimiba simvastatina generico precio His speech, under rains that have persisted throughout most of his first trip abroad as pope, came halfway through a week-long visit around World Youth Day, a gathering of young Catholics that is expected to attract more than a million faithful to Rio de Janeiro and nearby sites.

665. Zackary     [5.188.211.35]     25 Feb 2021 - 11:12

I stay at home and look after the children dexone dexamethasone 0.5 mg tablets The programme features additional performances by Ma and the Hawthorne String Quartet. In a statement, Ma said he's glad the foundation is "giving voice through music to those whose voices have been tragically silenced".

666. Nelson     [5.188.211.35]     25 Feb 2021 - 11:13

How many days will it take for the cheque to clear? preo remedio levofloxacino 500mg Packing pom-poms and bedazzled sports bras, The Gotham City Cheerleaders รƒยขร‚ย€ร‚ย” Big Blueรƒยขร‚ย€ร‚ย™s unofficial pep squad รƒยขร‚ย€ร‚ย” proved their spirit is still high during a sweaty spin ride Wednesday night at Revolve Fitness in Union Square. It was the teamรƒยขร‚ย€ร‚ย™s final workout before they tackle the grueling Tough Mudder obstacle course race Saturday in Englishtown, N.J.

667. Randall     [5.188.211.35]     25 Feb 2021 - 11:13

Where's the nearest cash machine? generic price for benazepril-hctz David Carey, executive vice president for corporate servicestold Reuters about the plan on Wednesday, a few days afterBlackBerry said it would no longer market to consumers becauseof drastically weakening smartphone sales.

668. Lucky     [5.188.211.35]     25 Feb 2021 - 11:13

Sorry, I ran out of credit claritin discount coupon In some developing countries such as India, attempts to stop AIDS have also slowed drug abuse as they focus on helping people kick their addictions, according to Vikram Patel, of the Centre for Global Mental Health at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. Patel recommended an approach to drug use similar to current controls on tobacco.

669. Warren     [5.188.211.35]     25 Feb 2021 - 11:13

How many days will it take for the cheque to clear? fungsi obat cetirizine hydrochloride 10mg "This is a tragedy that should not have happened, a memorial service that should not be taking place, and victims that should not be victims," Wayne LaPierre, NRA executive vice president, said on NBC's "Meet the Press" program.

670. Danny     [5.188.211.35]     25 Feb 2021 - 11:18

Do you know what extension he's on? detrol la 4mg capsule extended release The first bend of the Hahnenkamm was tough and my thighs were burning as I tackled the relentlessly unforgiving incline of the most famous downhill ski course in the world. Far below lay the โ€œpearl of the Austrian Alpsโ€, a cluster of ornate, dark wooden chalets, shops, hotels and church spires that make up the medieval town of Kitzbรƒยผhel.

671. Domingo     [5.188.211.35]     25 Feb 2021 - 11:18

A pension scheme fluconazole 150 mg tabletki doustne cena Furman will replace Alan Krueger, who took leave as aprofessor from Princeton University to hold the Cabinet-levelpost. The council advises the president on domestic andinternational economic policy.

672. Isabel     [5.188.211.35]     25 Feb 2021 - 11:18

I'm in my first year at university mesilato de doxazosina 2mg menor preo "It's a real concern of ours that the EU is havingdifficulties sustaining some of its designations," David Cohen,the U.S. Treasury Department's Under Secretary for Terrorism andFinancial Intelligence, told Reuters.

673. Sidney     [5.188.211.35]     25 Feb 2021 - 11:19

I can't get a signal azithromycin 1000 mg syphilis โ€œI have diminished the office to which you have elected me,โ€ he added. โ€œWhen a friend like Donna Frye is compelled to ask for my resignation, I am clearly doing something wrong .โ€ฆ I must and will change my behavior โ€ฆ. I need help.โ€

674. Lioncool     [5.188.211.35]     25 Feb 2021 - 11:19

Do you like it here? pantoprazole 40 mg harga Taken in combination with trends negative for commodities markets like the migration of manufacturing back to developed markets and 3-D printing, there may be fewer reasons for investors to consider the asset class.

675. Tomas     [5.188.211.35]     25 Feb 2021 - 11:25

Can I call you back? vitaros uk price "He is coming back, God willing," she told thousands of Morsi supporters assembled at Raba'a al Adawiya mosque in the Cairo suburb of Nasr City. The crowd responded with cries of โ€œReturning! Returning!โ€

676. Chase     [5.188.211.35]     25 Feb 2021 - 11:25

Please wait champix price check south africa When jurors returned, the judge referred them toinstructions she gave Wednesday, in which she said it would besufficient to find he obtained compensation directly orindirectly tied to a misstatement or omission.

677. Antone     [5.188.211.35]     25 Feb 2021 - 11:25

It's OK para que sirve celebrex de 200 mg Sunni insurgents may also be responsible for the attacks in Dora, hoping that the bombings will spark a sectarian backlash. But Shiite militias remobilizing and sending fighters to confront mostly Sunni rebels in neighboring Syria also could be to blame.

678. Theodore     [5.188.211.35]     25 Feb 2021 - 11:25

Please call back later what is citalopram hydrobromide generic for Coty expects revenue to fall marginally in its current firstquarter and that over the second half of its fiscal year it canreturn to growing in line or faster than the markets andcategories in which it competes, Scannavini added.

679. Clair     [5.188.211.35]     25 Feb 2021 - 11:25

Where's the postbox? fungsi dari obat methylprednisolone 4 mg The U.S. attorney in San Diego says 51-year-old Jing Wang made nearly $250,000 in profits from three illegal trades between 2010 and 2012. Wang is the former president of global business operations for the San Diego-based company.

680. Trinity     [5.188.211.35]     25 Feb 2021 - 11:31

good material thanks benazepril 20 mg Still, dealers warned against a hasty reaction as there were so many moving parts in play. As well as the stimulus tapering, the Fed may choose to alter its threshold for tightening, perhaps by lowering the trigger level on unemployment from the current 6.5 percent.

681. Darwin     [5.188.211.35]     25 Feb 2021 - 11:31

Are you a student? yasmin pilule cena 2019 She's been unfazed all season. Karrie Webb, a member of the World Golf Hall of Fame, wondered in jest if Park has a heartbeat after her four-stroke victory in the U.S. Women's Open. She was equally unflappable in winning the Wegmans LPGA Championship in a playoff and the Kraft Nabisco Championship by four shots.

682. Collin     [5.188.211.35]     25 Feb 2021 - 11:31

Very Good Site tamsulosin al 0 4mg hartkapseln mit vernderter wirkstofffreisetzung San Diego Superior Court Judge Patricia Cookson officiates the wedding of Danne Desbrow to his fiancรƒยƒร‚ยฉe, Destiny Winters, just minutes after he was sentenced to 53 years to life in prison for murder.

683. Joshua     [5.188.211.35]     25 Feb 2021 - 11:31

How do you know each other? zyrtec liquid gels costco The S&P 500 has climbed in four out of the past five sessions, putting the benchmark less than 2 percent below itsMay 21 all-time closing high of 1,669.16. In June, the benchmarkindex fell as much as 5.8 percent below that record.

684. Emmanuel     [5.188.211.35]     25 Feb 2021 - 11:31

Where's the postbox? buspirone hcl 10mg tab str Any time that a certain party has total control, it will be abused, whether it is intended or not. People are going to have different views, different beliefs and opinions, and that is just fine. In fact that is what is required for the system to work properly, if we deviate from this structure then we are setting up for failure.

685. Henry     [5.188.211.35]     25 Feb 2021 - 11:37

A staff restaurant trazodone 100 mg slaapmiddel But you know what? I just didnโ€™t get it. I couldnโ€™t understand the rabid affection that players have for the games. The fighting was โ€“ as I expected โ€“ rather slow and monotonous, with very little difference between one battle and the next. Levelling up the Pokemon was a chore, not a pleasure and having to grind through fight after fight against snake-like and rabbity creatures, who each died within a couple of lazy strikes from my crocadile-like friend, was a repetitive and unappealing prospect. The fact that every fight looks more or less identical as well, meant that both the easiest fight in the game and the most important and difficult ones felt almost identical, with no idea of scale or importance.

686. Vanessa     [5.188.211.35]     25 Feb 2021 - 11:37

Cool site goodluck :) feldene flash 20 mg price The Food and Drug Administration also has stopped routine inspections of food facilities in the United States and abroad, and border controls could be delayed. Food imports are still being inspected at borders, but any samples that need to be analyzed could be stalled because there are fewer scientists to analyze them.

687. Vaughn     [5.188.211.35]     25 Feb 2021 - 11:37

Jonny was here staytal 60 price Authorities announced last week that Aldosary had been indicted on 18 state felony counts, including 14 attempted first-degree murder charges, arson and use of explosives in the Nov. 30 bombing outside a Social Security Administration building in Casa Grande, about 50 miles south of Phoenix. No one was injured in the blast. Prosecutors said the attempted murder charges stem from 14 employees who were inside the building at the time of the explosion.

688. Ahmed     [5.188.211.35]     25 Feb 2021 - 11:37

I've been cut off preo carvedilol 6 25 mg Naidoo called Russia's treatment of the protesters "the most serious threat to Greenpeace's peaceful environmental activism" since its ship Rainbow Warrior was bombed and sunk while in port in New Zealand in 1985, when the group was protesting French nuclear testing in the Pacific.

689. Landon     [5.188.211.35]     25 Feb 2021 - 11:37

Have you got a telephone directory? naproxen accord 250 mg bijsluiter Kenneth Bae was sentenced in May to 15 years of hard labor after North Korea's Supreme Court convicted him of state subversion. It said the 45-year-old had used his tourism business to form groups to overthrow the government.

690. Marcelino     [5.188.211.35]     25 Feb 2021 - 11:43

When can you start? orlistat products baikal-pharmacy.com "I thought this whole thing has been despicable on his part," Detroit pitcher Max Scherzer said. "When he did get caught, he never came clean. He tried to question the ability of the collector when he was caught red-handed. So that's why the whole Braun situation, there is so much player outrage toward him."

691. Mitch     [5.188.211.35]     25 Feb 2021 - 11:43

Who's calling? zoloft sertralina 50 mg prospecto In the first group, they treated 20 mice with the oral drug twice a day and gave a placebo to nine mice seven weeks after they were infected. At this stage, there was clear evidence of infection in the brain, but they did not yet have the associated memory or behavioural problems.

692. Chauncey     [5.188.211.35]     25 Feb 2021 - 11:43

I want to make a withdrawal flucloxacillin 500mg antybiotyk ulotka Clay is, amazingly, also terrific in his brief scenes, nailing the kind of turn that echoes the ones Danny Aiello and Nick Apollo Forte gave in Allenรƒยขร‚ย€ร‚ย™s รƒยขร‚ย€ร‚ยœPurple Rose of Cairoรƒยขร‚ย€ร‚ย and รƒยขร‚ย€ร‚ยœBroadway Danny Rose,รƒยขร‚ย€ร‚ย respectively. And Baldwin รƒยขร‚ย€ร‚ย” who first worked for Allen in 1990รƒยขร‚ย€ร‚ย™s underseen รƒยขร‚ย€ร‚ยœAliceรƒยขร‚ย€ร‚ย รƒยขร‚ย€ร‚ย” gives his usual funny-gruff gloss to a puffed-up financial wolf.

693. Rodney     [5.188.211.35]     25 Feb 2021 - 11:43

Hello good day endurex price "Will Landesbanken ever make very strong Europeancompetitive banking? - The answer is no, the banking structuredoes not allow high market share, big penetration or earningspower," a senior Landesbanken banker told Reuters.

694. Garfield     [5.188.211.35]     25 Feb 2021 - 11:43

Where are you calling from? ondansetron odt 4 mg tbdp The main source of those problems is not mysterious. The loose collective running the site today, estimated to be 90 percent male, operates a crushing bureaucracy with an often abrasive atmosphere that deters newcomers who might increase participation in Wikipedia and broaden its coverage.

695. Norbert     [5.188.211.35]     25 Feb 2021 - 11:49

Three years terramycin sf capsule price The ambassador John Emerson is to meet with German Foreign Minister Guido Westerwelle later Thursday, after Merkel's spokesman Steffen Seibert said the chancellor had spoken Wednesday evening with President Obama via telephone. Seibert said that if the allegations were found to be true it would be "completely unacceptable."

696. Terence     [5.188.211.35]     25 Feb 2021 - 11:49

I stay at home and look after the children kegunaan obat acifar acyclovir 400 mg รƒยขร‚ย€ร‚ยœI would look at New York and think thereรƒยขร‚ย€ร‚ย™s a better chance of it being dry and cold than wet,รƒยขร‚ย€ร‚ย Elway said. รƒยขร‚ย€ร‚ยœI think it would be more about the fans and where they are going to sit watching the game, rather than the teams on the field. In the playoffs, for the most part, especially if itรƒยขร‚ย€ร‚ย™s in Denver, the weather is going to be cold that time of the year anyway.รƒยขร‚ย€ร‚ย

697. Nogood87     [5.188.211.35]     25 Feb 2021 - 11:49

How many would you like? septilin syrup price No, dear, the federal budget deficit has fallen 3 of the last four years (and 2011 was 0.4% higher than 2010), and will decrease again FY2014, God willing. And has steadily been decreasing as a share of GDP.

698. Chong     [5.188.211.35]     25 Feb 2021 - 11:49

Have you read any good books lately? terramycin baikal-pharmacy.com Problems containing contaminated water at Fukushima havemounted over the past month, and the government of PrimeMinister Shinzo Abe has promised about $470 million to fund thefirst part of a plan developed by Tokyo Electric to stopradiated water from spilling into the Pacific.

699. August     [5.188.211.35]     25 Feb 2021 - 11:49

Enter your PIN finaster 30 tabl cena Trinny looks classically sophisticated with this coat slung over her shoulders, completing her outfit of a draped navy dress. It truly adds a beautifully tailored element to the look, and would take any wearer from workwear smart to evening elegance.

700. Reggie     [5.188.211.35]     25 Feb 2021 - 11:55

Have you got any qualifications? ibuprofen 800 mg sleepy However, please note - if you block/delete all cookies, some features of our websites, such as remembering your login details, or the site branding for your local newspaper may not function as a result.


ขออภัย เนื่องจากกระทู้นี้มีผู้ร่วมตอบกระทู้ เกินกว่า 1,000 กระทู้แล้ว

จึงขอปิด! งดการตอบกระทู้ต่อไป เนื่องจากจะทำให้ระบบโดยรวมช้าลง

หากเห็นว่ากระทู้นี้มีประโยชน์ ขอให้ท่านเปิดกระทู้ใหม่แทน

จากใจ Webmaster



ย้อนกลับไปเว็บบอร์ด

© Copyright 2007-2012 www.Watdon.net All rights reserved.