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0023 : จากคุณ พระอาจารย์   [58.8.53.107]   08 Dec 2009 - 15:04   [1004 คำตอบ]

เนื้อหาที่ต้องรู้ก่อนสอบ ม4


หลักประชาธิปไตยทั่วไปในพระพุทธศาสนา

พระพุทธศาสนาเป็นศาสนาประชาธิปไตยมาตั้งแต่เริ่มแรก ก่อนที่พระพุทธเจ้าจะทรงมอบให้พระสงฆ์เป็นใหญ่ในกิจการทั้งปวงเสียอีกลักษณะที่เป็นประชาธิปไตยในพระพุทธศาสนามีตัวอย่างดังต่อไปนี้

1. พระพุทธศาสนามีพระธรรมวินัยเป็นธรรมนูญหรือกฎหมายสูงสุด พระธรรม คือ คำสอนที่พระพุทธเจ้าทรงแสดง พระวินัยคือ คำสั่งอันเป็นข้อปฏิบัติที่พระพุทธเจ้าทรงบัญญัติขึ้นเมื่อรวมกัน เรียกว่า พระธรรมวินัย ซึ่งมีความสำคัญขนาดที่พระพุทธเจ้าทรงมอบให้เป็นพระศาสดาแทนพระองค์ ก่อนที่พระองค์จะปรินิพพานเพียงเล็กน้อย

2. มีการกำหนดลักษณะของศาสนาไว้เรียบร้อย ไม่ปล่อยให้เป็นไปตามยถากรรม ลักษณะของพระพุทธศาสนาคือสายกลาง ไม่ซ้ายสุด ไม่ขวาสุด ทางสายกลางนี้เป็นครรลอง อาจปฏิบัติค่อนข้างเคร่งครัดก็ได้ โดยใช้สิทธิในการแสวงหาอดิเรกลาภตามที่ทรงอนุญาตไว้ ในสมัยต่อมา เรียกแนวกลางๆ ของพระพุทธศาสนาว่า วิภัชชวาที คือศาสนาที่กล่าวจำแนกแจกแจง ตามความเป็นจริงบางอย่างกล่าวยืนยันโดยส่วนเดียวได้ บางอย่างกล่าวจำแนกแจกแจงเป็นกรณี ๆ ไป

3. พระพุทธศาสนา มีความเสมอภาคภายใต้พระธรรมวินัย บุคคลที่เป็นวรรณะกษัตริย์ พราหมณ์ แพศย์ ศูทรมาแต่เดิม รวมทั้งคนวรรณะต่ำกว่านั้น เช่นพวกจัณฑาล พวกปุกกุสะคนเก็บขยะ และพวกทาส เมื่อเข้ามาอุปสมบทในพระพุทธศาสนาอย่างถูกต้องแล้ว มีความเท่าเทียมกัน คือปฏิบัติตามสิกขาบทเท่ากัน และเคารพกันตามลำดับอาวุโส คือผู้อุปสมบทภายหลังเคารพผู้อุปสมบทก่อน

4. พระภิกษุในพระพุทธศาสนา มีสิทธิ เสรีภาพภายใต้พระธรรมวินัย เช่นในฐานะภิกษุเจ้าถิ่น จะมีสิทธิได้รับของแจกก่อนภิกษุอาคันตุกะ ภิกษุที่จำพรรษาอยู่ด้วยกันมีสิทธิได้รับของแจกตามลำดับพรรษา มีสิทธิรับกฐิน และได้รับอานิสงส์กฐินในการแสวงหาจีวรตลอด 4 เดือนฤดูหนาวเท่าเทียมกัน นอกจากนั้นยังมีเสรีภาพที่จะเดินทางไปไหนมาไหนได้ จะอยู่จำพรรษาวัดใดก็ได้เลือกปฏิบัติกรรมฐานข้อใด ถือธุดงควัตรข้อใดก็ได้ทั้งสิ้นฃ

5. มีการแบ่งอำนาจ พระเถระผู้ใหญ่ทำหน้าที่บริหารปกครองหมู่คณะ การบัญญัติพระวินัย พระพุทธเจ้าทรงบัญญัติเอง เช่นมีภิกษุผู้ทำผิดมาสอบสวนแล้วจึงทรงบัญญัติพระวินัย ส่วนการตัดสินคดีตามพระวินัยทรงบัญญัติแล้วเป็นหน้าที่ของพระวินัยธรรมซึ่งเท่ากับศาล


6. พระพุทธศาสนามีหลักเสียงข้างมาก คือ ใช้เสียงข้างมาก เป็นเกณฑ์ตัดสิน เรียกว่า วิธีเยภุยยสิกา การตัดสินโดยใช้เสียงข้างมาก ฝ่ายใดได้รับเสียงข้างมากสนับสนุน ฝ่ายนั้นเป็นฝ่ายชนะคดี


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